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Chapter 21
  • Cities are made possible by stable food supply.
  • Process of urbanization intensified by the concentration of humanity that began with agriculture
  • The needs for central authority, organization, and coordination of efforts produced the foundations for city formation.
  • In the 21st century, the world will be predominately urban
  • First agricultural settlements: small, did not vary much in size, no governmental authority beyond village
  • No public buildings or workshops.
  • Urbanization and the formation of states transformed egalitarian societies into stratified, functionally specialized ones.
  • Probably started in the Fertile Crescent on Southwest Asia.
  • The period between about 7000B.P. and 5000B.P. is called the formative era for both the development of states and urbanization.
  • During the 3rd millennium B.P. Greece became one of the most highly urbanization areas on Earth.
  • The ancient Romans combined local traditions with Greek customs in building an urban system that extended from Britain to Mesopotamia.
  • The Roman Urban System was the largest yet.
  • Greek and Roman concepts of urbanization diffused into Western Europe.
  • More efficient weapons and the invention of gunpowder forced cities to develop more extensive fortifications that could not simply be moved outward.
  • The greater numbers of people could only be housed by building upwards.
  • The traders’ mercantile city gave way to the factory- dominated manufacturing center, and the automobile enabled the evolution of the suburbanized modern city.
  • Today’s “postmodern” cities reflect the age of high technology.
  • As early towns in a region started to grow and become interdependent a new development took place. This was the rise of the first states.
  • The early cities were not large by today’s standards. The largest probably had populations of about 10,000 to 15,000.
  • By the middle of the third millennium B.P., Greece had the largest urban complex in the world. Its two leading cities were Athens and Sparta.
  • The hallmark of the Roman culture was their efficiency.
  • The urban tradition on the Italian peninsula prior to the Romans came from Etruscans.
  • In the early decades of the Industrial Revolution, England had a region called the “black towns” because of soot.
  • Blue collar was a common term for factory workers in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
  • Soon a city in India will challenge Tokyo as the world’s most populous city.
  • The northern boundary of the Roman Empire in Britain was marked by Hadrian’s Wall.
  • The manufacturing city first emerged in the British Midlands.
  • One of the world’s earliest states developed in Mesopotamia.
  • The Chinese city of Xian was known as the Rome of East Asia.
Chapter 22
  • An urban center’s location strongly influences its fortunes.
  • Its position in a large and productive hinterland can ensure its well-being.
  • The Industrial Revolution occurred almost a century later in the United States than in Europe. When it finally did cross the Atlantic in the 1870’s, it progressed so robustly that only 50 years later America surpassed Europe as the world’s mightiest industrial power.
  • The impact of industrial urbanization was felt at a national level, there quickly emerged a network of cities specialized in the collection, processing, and distribution of raw materials and manufactured goods, and linked together by an even more efficient web of transport routes.
  • Cities exhibit functional structure, they are spatially organized to perform their functions as places of commerce, production, education, and more.
  • Models of urban structure reveal how the forces that shape the internal layout of cities have changed, transforming the single-center city with one dominant downtown into the polycentric metropolis with several commercial nodes.
  • The larger the city, the larger the number of functions.
  • As urban centers grow, they tend to lose their specialization.
  • Bosnywash is located along the U.S. Northeast Coast.
  • In the early 21st century, the world’s fastest-growing urban area is Shenzen.
  • The city of Paris is located on the Seine River.
  • Bangkok, Thailand has some of the most polluted air in the world.
  • The Iron Horse Epoch - evolution of American urban system dominated by diffusion of the steam-powered railroad
  • The rank-size rule of urban places does not apply in countries with dominant primate cites.
  • In the 1940’s, retail centers in America were concentrated in the Northeast
  • In today’s world, some regional cities are so successful and powerful that their leaders can afford to do business directly with foreign countries
  • While some hamlets may have no urban functions, villages are likely to.
  • The megalopolis of Bosnywash in the United States has a global economic reach.
Chapter 23
  • Western Europe, North America, Japan, and Australia have the most urban dwellers, but urbanization is occurring elsewhere, especially in Subsaharan Africa.
  • Over 50% of the population is urbanized, and is estimated to be 67% by 2050.
  • The largest urban areas are in the less developed countries, and the leading cities of the 1950’s don’t even make the top 25 today.
  • The world’s greatest complexes are in North America, Western Europe, and Japan are the result of megalopolitan coalescence, but the fastest growing megacities are in South and East Asia.
  • More recent domestic developments, as well as South American, East Asian, and Subsaharan African cities reflect their colonial beginnings.
  • More than 300 cities have a population over 1 million.
  • The outer ring in both Latin American cities and Southeast Asian cities is usually the place where slums and squatter settlemen are located.
  • In African cities vertical growth occurs mainly in the old colonial CBD part of the city.
  • Africa has the least level of urbanization. (other than Antarctica)
  • Outside North America and Western Europe, major megalopolitan development is occurring only in Japan.
  • Cities in poorer parts of the world generally lack enforceable laws to ensure the orderly use of space. Such laws are called zoning laws.
  • United Nations studies suggest that by 2035 there may be as many as 20 cities with populations over 20 million.
  • In early 2002, the fastest-growing megacities in the world were in South and East Asia.
  • In 1950, the only city in the world with more than 10 million residents was New York City.
  • Nucleation resulting from the oil industry has resulted in the Southwest Asian and North African realm, the Middle East, and the Arabian Peninsula being highly urbanized.
  • The world’s tallest buildings are located in Malaysia.
  • The African city quite often contains three CBDs.
  • According to the United Nations Population Fund, the African city of Lagos will soon rank as the world’s third largest in population.
  • In the early 21st century, cities with a million or more inhabitants can be counted in the hundreds.
  • The 3 countries of the South American “cone” are Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay.
  • By 2015, not one of the world’s 23 most populous cities will be a European city.


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